18:05 Woodbine (USA) (Dirt) 15 Sep 2018

Race 1 - Maiden Optional Claiming (3YO plus)

Winner $21,420 - 8 run - Draw Advantage: None

1

1m 110y

Fast (Dirt)

Weighed In
No. Form Silk / Saddlecloth / Horse Name Age / wt Jockey / trainer
1
073
i
1

Spirit Of York 27 

ch g Not Bourbon - Northern Sorceress (Devil's Bag)

3 8-7
Emma Jayne WilsonElizabeth Elder
2
883
i
2

Stroke Of Luck 31 

b g Pool Play - You Will Love Me (One Way Love)

3 8-7
Ademar SantosIan Black
3
47-7680
i
3

Silent Empire 12 

b g Silent Name - Lovely Bull (Holy Bull)

4 8-11
Chantal SutherlandPeter Berringer
4
7-34724
i
4

Sharp Brew 27 

b g Milwaukee Brew - Savethethought (Niigon)

BF
3 8-7
Jesse CampbellStuart Simon
5
3/22344
i
5

Mo Gee 20 

b g Uncle Mo - Cataract Canyon (Broken Vow)

4 8-11
Gary BoulangerMark Casse
6
480
i
6

Silent Blaze 69 

b g Silent Name - Baby Blaze (Mr. Greeley)

4 8-11
Kazushi KimuraJim Ensom
7
608624
i
7

Argentium 12 

b g Badge Of Silver - Ma Peche (Umrigar)

3 8-7
Christopher HusbandsJudith Pottins
8
545
i
8

Full Extreme 27 

b g Sligo Bay - Victoria Bay (Northern Afleet)

3 8-7
Luis ContrerasKevin Attard
Verdict

MO GEE looks a danger to all now eased in grade and could feasibly step up on his last-start course fourth in this weaker company. Argentium and Sharp Brew can fight it out for the silver medal.

18:35 Woodbine (USA) (Dirt) 15 Sep 2018

Race 2 - Maiden Special Weight (2YO only)

Winner $28,350 - 8 run - Draw Advantage: None

2

6f

Fast (Dirt)

Weighed In
No. Form Silk / Saddlecloth / Horse Name Age / wt Jockey / trainer
1
i
1
Black, Silver disc, Black cap (Norseman Racing Stable)

Sledgehammer 

ch c Signature Red - Springledge (Outflanker)

Non Runner
2
5
i
2

Cheek To Cheek 35 

ch g Town Prize - Ella Singstheblues (Cure The Blues)

BF
2 8-8
Gary BoulangerDarwin Banach
3
68
i
3

Draxhall 14 

b c Exhi - Kiche's Spirit (Niigon)

2 8-8 b
Slade CallaghanAnthony Pottinger
4
2
i
4

A Mi Dat 20 

dk g Souper Speedy - Loupe de Grace (Explosive Red)

2 8-8
Marklee BuchananKrista Cole
5
i
5

Harmony Hall 

b g Nephrite - Prospective Queen (Suave Prospect)

2 8-8 b1
Ademar SantosW Armata
6
i
6

Silencium 

dk c Silent Name - Cool Brew (Milwaukee Brew)

2 8-8
Eurico Silva DaRobert Tiller
7
i
7

Just Run With It 

b g Court Vision - Alexis (Alzao)

2 8-8 b1
Devon JohnsonGordon Colbourne
8
7
i
8

Wiley O'Rielly 14 

ch c Singing Saint - Rain Boots (Storm Boot)

2 8-8
Alan GarciaRobert Barnett
9
i
9

Dun Drum 

dk g Bold n' Flashy - Lea's Moon (Perigee Moon)

2 8-8
Emma Jayne WilsonIan Black
Verdict

A MI DAT shaped with an abundance of promise when second over C&D on debut and is expected to take a forward step. Any money for newcomers Silencium and Sledgehammer would be worth heeding.

19:07 Woodbine (USA) 15 Sep 2018

Race 3 - Maiden Special Weight (3YO plus)

Winner $38,430 - 7 run - Draw Advantage: None

3

7f

Firm

Weighed In
No. Form Silk / Saddlecloth / Horse Name Age / wt Jockey / trainer
1
46
i
1
Pink, black disc, black armlets on sleeves, pink and black quartered cap (Shoestring Stable)

One For Nicki 14 

dk f Langfuhr - Smart Suzie (Smart Strike)

Non Runner
2
3-5
i
2

Vivacitas 29 

dk f Bernardini - Stella Blue (Anabaa)

3 8-7
Rafael HernandezRoger Attfield
3
2-43522
i
3

Wild N Ready 29 

ch f More Than Ready - D'wild Ride (D'Wildcat)

BF
3 8-7
Patrick HusbandsMark Casse
4
873
i
4

Fashion Brand 98 

dk f Medaglia d'Oro - Theyskens' Theory (Bernardini)

3 8-7
Eurico Silva DaCatherine Day Phillips
5
i
5

Dynatown 

ch f Speightstown - Dynaslew (Dynaformer)

3 8-7 b1
Jerome LermyteMark Casse
6
i
6

Strike It Royal 

b f Smart Strike - Cleopatra's Needle (Sky Classic)

3 8-7 b1
Gary BoulangerGail Cox
7
465-9
i
7

Lonhro'scollection 35 

b f Lonhro - Recollect (El Prado)

3 8-7
Luis ContrerasJosie Carroll
8
40-46
i
8

Desert Isle 31 

dk f Bernardini - Eye Of The Sphynx (Smart Strike)

3 8-7 b1
Jose OrtizH Motion
Verdict

Desert Isle and Fashion Brand both warrant respect on their recent performances, but the vote goes to WILD N READY, who can get off the mark at the eighth attempt.

19:37 Woodbine (USA) (Dirt) 15 Sep 2018

Race 4 - Allowance (3YO plus)

Winner $38,430 - 9 run - Draw Advantage: None

4

1m 110y

Fast (Dirt)

Weighed In
No. Form Silk / Saddlecloth / Horse Name Age / wt Jockey / trainer
1
6-44272
i
1

Narrow Escape 27 

b g Sky Conqueror - Certainly Special (Distorted Humor)

D BF
5 8-9
Eurico Silva DaJustin Nixon
2
516-6
i
2

Nature's Fortune 216 

dk c Tiznow - Forest Uproar (Forest Wildcat)

D
4 8-9
Gary BoulangerGail Cox
3
21-5637
i
3

Amberwood 27 

ch g Old Forester - Loula (Whiskey Wisdom)

D
6 8-9
Patrick HusbandsRonald Sadler
4
120-933
i
4

Peppered 27 

b g Tapizar - Elaborate (Cherokee Run)

D BF
3 8-5
Javier CastellanoReade Baker
5
31431-1
i
5

Divine Dance 35 

dk g Dance to Destiny - Brave Diva (Theatrical)

D
7 8-9
Alan GarciaSam Di Pasquale
6
5-41362
i
6

Say The Word 28 

dk g More Than Ready - Danceforthecause (Giant's Causeway)

3 8-5
Jose OrtizH Motion
7
3-37760
i
7

Tale Of Vienna 27 

gr/ g Tale of Ekati - Rubywood (Woodman)

3 8-5
O MorenoLaurie Silvera
8
861443
i
8

Armament 21 

dk c War Front - Alternate (Seattle Slew)

4 8-9
Joel RosarioMalcolm Pierce
9
401
i
9

Pawnbroker 49 

ch c Gio Ponti - Sweetdetermination (Alphabet Soup)

D
3 8-5
Rafael HernandezMichael Maker
Verdict

SAY THE WORD has the strongest recent form in this contest and he looks the one to side. Narrow Escape and Peppered are feared most.

20:11 Woodbine (USA) (Dirt) 15 Sep 2018

Race 5 - Allowance Optional Claiming (3YO plus)

Winner $39,249 - 7 run - Draw Advantage: None

5

6f

Fast (Dirt)

Weighed In
No. Form Silk / Saddlecloth / Horse Name Age / wt Jockey / trainer
1
836212
i
1

Glacier 28 

ch c Broken Vow - Haddie Be Good (Silver Deputy)

D BF
4 8-9
Rafael HernandezNorman McKnight
2
44-2376
i
2

Lokinforpursemonee 28 

b c Silent Name - Anne's Purse (Porto Foricos)

D
4 8-9 b1
O MorenoJohn Ross
3
4636/78-
i
3

Rexton 419 

dk h Philanthropist - Brooke's Bubble (Rinka Das)

D
8 8-7
Kazushi KimuraJohn Mattine
4
85-4242
i
4

Circle Of Friends 17 

dk g Midnight Lute - She Ain't Much (Phone Trick)

D
4 8-9
Eurico Silva DaRobert Tiller
5
24-1273
i
5

San Nicola Thunder 28 

dk g Silent Name - San Nicola Flyer (ALYDEED)

D
8 8-9
Kirk JohnsonAnthony Adamo
6
361-849
i
6

Marten River 28 

dk g Silent Name - Money Shaker (Tumblebrutus)

D
4 8-7
Jesse CampbellDavid Bell
7
685-232
i
7

Dragon's Cry 12 

ch g Victor's Cry - Miss Dragonfly (Grand Slam)

D
4 8-7
Gary BoulangerJim Ensom
Verdict

GLACIER has not been out the top two in three outings and appears set to be a leading player once again. Circle Of Friends and Dragon's Cry have both knocked on the door of late and are others to note.

20:42 Woodbine (USA) (Dirt) 15 Sep 2018

Race 6 - Sweet Briar Too Stakes (3YO plus)

Winner $63,000 - 7 run - Draw Advantage: None

6

6f 110y

Fast (Dirt)

Weighed In
No. Form Silk / Saddlecloth / Horse Name Age / wt Jockey / trainer
1
472367
i
1

Moonlit Promise 20 

b m Malibu Moon - Smart Surprise (Smart Strike)

D
5 8-5 b1
Eurico Silva DaJosie Carroll
2
162191
i
2
White, royal blue star, pink stars on white sleeves, royal blue cap (Zilli Racing Stables)

Code Warrior 20 

dk m Society's Chairman - Lady Natalie (Runaway Groom)

D
Non Runner
3
14-5416
i
3

Silent Sonet 35 

b f Silent Name - Dynasonet (Hussonet)

D
4 8-7
Luis ContrerasNicholas Gonzalez
4
11-7643
i
4

Malibu Bonnie 20 

dk f Malibu Moon - Old Time Chicago (Street Sense)

D
4 8-5
Jerome LermyteMark Casse
5
2-21226
i
5

Answer My Call 20 

dk f Dialed In - Ginger Light (Colony Light)

D
4 8-5
Ademar SantosRyan Walsh
6
147578
i
6

Just Be Kind 20 

b f Sky Mesa - Pretty valentine (Macho Uno)

D
4 8-5
Emma Jayne WilsonReade Baker
7
35-1559
i
7

Sister Nation 20 

b f Into Mischief - Evita's Sister (Candy Ride)

D
4 8-5 (ow1)
Gary BoulangerMichael De Paulo
8
587-178
i
8

Victory To Victory 48 

ch f Exchange Rate - Points Of Grace (Point Given)

4 8-5
Rafael HernandezMark Casse
Verdict

CODE WARRIOR has won two of his last three and appears set to take this, possibly at the main expense of first-time blinkered Moonlit Promise and Silent Sonet.

21:13 Woodbine (USA) (Dirt) 15 Sep 2018

Race 7 - Allowance (3YO plus)

Winner $38,430 - 7 run - Draw Advantage: None

7

1m 110y

Fast (Dirt)

Weighed In
No. Form Silk / Saddlecloth / Horse Name Age / wt Jockey / trainer
1
336627
i
1

Alice's War 13 

ch m Philanthropist - Proud N' Be Holden (Proud Citizen)

D
5 8-9
Sunny SinghSylvain Pion
2
3746-62
i
2

Lisa's Escarpment 34 

b f Sligo Bay - Escarpment (Grand Slam)

4 8-9
Javier CastellanoNicholas Gonzalez
3
314-045
i
3

Power Empire (JPN)  13 

b f Empire Maker - Word Power (Oasis Dream)

D
3 8-5
Rafael HernandezMark Casse
4
545132
i
4

Mystic Nile 20 

b f Pioneerof the Nile - Cohiba Miss (Cat Thief)

D
3 8-5 (ow1)
Jesse CampbellSteve Attard
5
37129
i
5

Stormy Summer 28 

b f Sligo Bay - Vermont Summer (Allen's Prospect)

3 8-5
Luis ContrerasAndrew Smith
6
75-1562
i
6
Grey and red checks,red cap (Anderson Farms Ontario Inc)

Dreams Are Free 45 

dk f Bellamy Road - Off Limits (Include)

D
Non Runner
7
585631
i
7

Bridlewise 29 

b f Street Sense - Kunooz (Hard Spun)

D
3 8-5
Ademar SantosLaurie Silvera
8
5-46131
i
8

Now Play Nice 17 

b f Roman Ruler - High Style (Giant's Causeway)

D
4 8-9
Skye ChernetzDavid Cotey
Verdict

MYSTIC NILE has been knocking hard on the door of late and she just gets the nod today, ahead of Lisa's Escarpment and Alice's War.

21:48 Woodbine (USA) 15 Sep 2018

Race 8 - Ricoh Woodbine Mile Stakes (3YO plus)

Winner $504,000 - 8 run - Draw Advantage: None

8

1m

Firm

Weighed In
No. Form Silk / Saddlecloth / Horse Name Age / wt Jockey / trainer
1
42-1375
i
1

Good Samaritan 42 

b c Harlan's Holiday - Pull Dancer (Pulpit)

D
4 8-11
Joel RosarioWilliam Mott
2
1-01115
i
2
Forest green, crimson 'v', crimson cap (Team Valor International)

La Sardane (FR)  21 

b f Kingsalsa - Foresta (Forestier)

D
Non Runner
3
1213-12
i
3

Delta Prince 35 

dk h Street Cry - Delta Princess (A.P. Indy)

D
5 8-11
Javier CastellanoJames Jerkens
4
423112
i
4

Vanish 21 

ch g Algorithms - Elusive Hope (Elusive Quality)

D
4 8-7
Ademar SantosVito Armata
5
112-141
i
5

Mr Havercamp 21 

dk g Court Vision - Tennessee Lamb (Medaglia d'Oro)

D
4 8-11
Eurico Silva DaCatherine Day Phillips
6
2-22231
i
6

Lord Glitters (FR)  21 

gr g Whipper - Lady Glitters (Homme de Loi)

D
5 8-9
J P SpencerDavid O Meara
7
1139-19
i
7

Oscar Performance 35 

b c Kitten's Joy - Devine Actress (Theatrical)

D BF
4 8-11
Jose OrtizBrian Lynch
8
74-2413
i
8

Divisidero 35 

b h Kitten's Joy - Madame Du Lac (Lemon Drop Kid)

D
6 8-11
Jevian ToledoKelly Rubley
9
6-12123
i
9

Stormy Antarctic (GB)  21 

ch g Stormy Atlantic - Bea Remembered (Doyen)

D
5 8-11
G MosseEd Walker
Verdict

LORD GLITTERS is a proven Group 1 performer in Europe and he could be hard to beat as long as the travelling has not left a mark on him. Stormy Antarctic is another European raider to note, while Oscar Performance is the pick of the North American team.

22:27 Woodbine (USA) 15 Sep 2018

Race 9 - Canadian Stakes Presented by the Japan Racing Association (3YO plus)

Winner $157,500 - 6 run - Draw Advantage: None

9

1m 1f

Firm

Weighed In
No. Form Silk / Saddlecloth / Horse Name Age / wt Jockey / trainer
1
225201
i
1

Daring Duchess 35 

b m Arch - A True Pussycat (Yes It's True)

D
6 8-3
Rafael HernandezMichael Maker
2
32-7171
i
2
Red, gold sleeves, red cap (Sam-Son Farm)

Mythical Mission 42 

ch f Giant's Causeway - Misty Mission (Miswaki)

D
Non Runner
3
41-1225
i
3

Inflexibility 35 

b f Scat Daddy - Halo's Verse (Unbridled's Song)

D
4 8-3
Jose OrtizChad Brown
4
23-2122
i
4
White and green halves, gold yoke, gold hoops on white sleeves, gold cap (Chiefswood Stable)

Niigon's Eclipse 35 

ch m Niigon - Eclipse Bay (Hennessy)

D BF
Non Runner
5
1564-16
i
5

New Money Honey 56 

b f Medaglia d'Oro - Weekend Whim (Distorted Humor)

D
4 8-9
Javier CastellanoChad Brown
6
3-12461
i
6

Starship Jubilee 40 

b m Indy Wind - Perfectly Wild (Forest Wildcat)

D
5 8-7
Luis ContrerasKevin Attard
7
2-19246
i
7

Bletchley (GB)  42 

b f Makfi - An Ghalanta (Holy Roman Emperor)

D
4 8-3 (ow2)
Jerome LermyteMark Casse
8
11-0134
i
8

Hallie Belle 42 

b f Medaglia d'Oro - Charity Belle (Empire Maker)

D
4 8-3 (ow1)
Eurico Silva DaMichael Stidham
Verdict

INFLEXIBILITY was only beaten two lengths in a Grade 1 last time out and she appears to be the one to beat. New Money Honey has a similar profile to the selection, while Hallie Belle completes the shortlist.

23:02 Woodbine (USA) (Dirt) 15 Sep 2018

Race 10 - Bold Venture Stakes (3YO plus)

Winner $78,750 - 9 run - Draw Advantage: None

10

6f 110y

Fast (Dirt)

Weighed In
No. Form Silk / Saddlecloth / Horse Name Age / wt Jockey / trainer
1
2425-15
i
1

Sweet Grass Creek 48 

ch g Wando - Sweet Bama Breeze (City Zip)

D
6 8-6
David MoranMichael Keogh
2
2117-36
i
2

Sable Island 106 

dk g Stormy Atlantic - Marigold Miss (Marju)

D
3 8-0 (ow2)
Emma Jayne WilsonGordon Colbourne
3
111311
i
3

Pink Lloyd 17 

ch g Old Forester - Gladiator Queen (Great Gladiator)

D
6 8-13
Eurico Silva DaRobert Tiller
4
2253-78
i
4

Loose On The Town 28 

dk g Speightstown - Gauze (Saint Ballado)

D
6 8-6
Javier CastellanoMichael Doyle
5
24-9128
i
5

Battle In Seattle (FR)  48 

ch g Naaqoos - Boa Vinda (High Yield)

D
4 8-6
Jose OrtizH Motion
6
21-4411
i
6

Kingsport 17 

dk h Milwaukee Brew - Green Jewel (Green Dancer)

D
6 8-10
Patrick HusbandsSid Attard
7
556-146
i
7

Boreal Spirit 21 

b g North Light - Rain Boots (Storm Boot)

D
6 8-6
Gary BoulangerJennifer Shafer
8
12-6581
i
8
Pink, blue cross sashes, blue stripe on (Alpine Stable Ltd)

Ikerrin Road (IRE)  28 

b g Iffraaj - Fantastic Spring (Fantastic Light)

D
Non Runner
9
46-5242
i
9

Yorkton 48 

b c Speightstown - Sunday Affair (A.P. Indy)

D
4 8-6
Jesse CampbellStuart Simon
10
1-11123
i
10

Sweet Little Man 21 

dk g Jazil - Honey Treat (Wild Rush)

D
8 8-6
Luis ContrerasJim Ensom
Verdict

PINK LLOYD knuckled down well to score by a neck over 6f here last time and could feasibly follow up over this slightly longer trip. Kingsport and Yorkton can fight it out for the silver medal.

23:36 Woodbine (USA) 15 Sep 2018

Race 11 - Northern Dancer Turf Stakes (3YO plus)

Winner $189,000 - 10 run - Draw Advantage: None

11

1m 4f

Firm

Weighed In
No. Form Silk / Saddlecloth / Horse Name Age / wt Jockey / trainer
1
21600-2
i
1

Mekhtaal (GB)  55 

ch h Sea The Stars - Aiglonne (Silver Hawk)

5 8-11
Jose OrtizH Motion
2
568254
i
2

Markitoff 21 

ch c Giant's Causeway - Myriad (Ghostzapper)

4 8-7
Javier CastellanoMichael Maker
3
3-16631
i
3

Utmost 27 

ch c Giant's Causeway - Fugitive Angel (Alphabet Soup)

4 8-11
Alan GarciaH Motion
4
06-5532
i
4

Johnny Bear 17 

ch g English Channel - In Return (Horse Chestnut)

D BF
7 8-11
Luis ContrerasAshlee Brnjas
5
2-11534
i
5

Hawkbill 70 

ch h Kitten's Joy - Trensa (Giant's Causeway)

D
5 9-0
J P SpencerC Appleby
6
385112
i
6

Tiz A Slam 27 

b c Tiznow - Flaming Rose (Grand Slam)

D BF
4 8-11
Steven BahenRoger Attfield
7
456-531
i
7

Vexatious 31 

b f Giant's Causeway - Dream Of Summer (Siberian Summer)

4 8-4
Rafael BejaranoNeil Drysdale
8
44-0853
i
8

Seeking Albert 27 

dk c Einstein - Purple Trillium (Seeking The Gold)

D
4 8-7 b
David MoranMichael De Paulo
9
5-48731
i
9

English Illusion 17 

ch g English Channel - Stormy Illusion (Woodman)

D
5 8-7
Rafael HernandezSylvain Pion
10
3-94144
i
10

Patterson Cross 24 

b h Arch - Storm Tracer (Pulpit)

5 8-7
Joel RosarioWilliam Mott
Verdict

Godolphin representative HAWKBILL could be a warm order on his first start since finishing fourth in the Eclipse. Utmost had Tiz A Slam (second) and Seeking Albert (third) in arrears when landing a Grade 2 here last time and is considered the main danger.

00:06 Woodbine (USA) (Dirt) 16 Sep 2018

Race 12 - Claiming (3YO plus)

Winner $12,600 - 13 run - Draw Advantage: None

12

6f

Fast (Dirt)

Weighed In
No. Form Silk / Saddlecloth / Horse Name Age / wt Jockey / trainer
1
1-34349
i
1

Agosta 15 

b f Successful Appeal - Unto the Hills (Mt. Livermore)

D
4 8-7
Emma Jayne WilsonJohn Charalambous
2
573290
i
2

Sky Vision 15 

b f Court Vision - Skybound (Maria's Mon)

D
4 8-9
Jesse CampbellDale Desruisseaux
3
627431
i
3

Silent Consort 15 

b f Silent Name - Flashy Consort (Bold n' Flashy)

D
3 8-7
David MoranMichael Doyle
4
636652
i
4

Molinaro Deputy 12 

ch m Paullinus - Acting Deputy (Silver Deputy)

D
6 8-7
Luis ContrerasVito Armata
5
4-97987
i
5
Yellow, burgundy stars, burgundy sleeves, yellow and burgundy quartered cap (Jennifer Armata)

Ready's Princess 15 

dk f Ready's Image - Jane N Ali (Quiet American)

Non Runner
6
224424
i
6

Megalin Candy 15 

ch m Sidney's Candy - Baba Gonzo (Elusive Quality)

5 8-9
Simon HusbandsJulie Belhumeur
7
3102
i
7

Oculist 21 

dk f Orb - Scanning (Easing Along)

D BF
3 8-7
Eurico Silva DaMichael Maker
8
14-4344
i
8

Mizzona 24 

b f Gone Astray - Forever Blonde (Belong To Me)

4 8-9
Kazushi KimuraSteve Attard
9
590-036
i
9

Early Ringaling 27 

dk m Where's the Ring - Ring Out (Far Out East)

8 8-7
Isabelle WencRoss Armata
10
479568
i
10

Scarlet Bow 24 

dk f Oxbow - Window Woman (Skip Away)

3 8-7
Ademar SantosMichael Wright
11
270864
i
11

Under Lock And Key 12 

b f Bold Warrior - After the Applause (Lost Soldier)

4 8-7
Jeffrey AldersonA Loney
12
14-6587
i
12

Bella's Storm 35 

b f Stormy Atlantic - Classical Humour (Distorted Humor)

D
3 8-5 (ow1)
Steven BahenJohn Charalambous
13
634980
i
13

Alert Kitten 28 

dk f Kitten's Joy - Lively Lexi (Giant's Causeway)

3 8-7
Skye ChernetzBonnie Eshelman
14
534454
i
14
Powder blue, black diamond hoop, black diamond on sleeves, black cap (Cooper, Paul And Cardella, John)

Shez A Ten I Know 12 

dk f Court Vision - Sheza a Nine Plus (Spend A Buck)

Non Runner
15
545710-
i
15

Igotyurgrasshopper 333 

dk f Grasshopper - Hoist the Secret (Precocity)

4 8-7
Devon JohnsonJerry Tillis
Verdict

OCULIST rattled the crossbar over the extended 6f here last time and wouldn't need to find much improvement to go one better over this slightly shorter trip. Mizzona and Molinaro Deputy are considered the principal threats.